To safely use a generator to power your home, you need do a generator transfer panel installation. This installation can be done by a professional or someone who has some electrical experience with breaker panels. If one can replace a circuit breaker, they can probably install a generator transfer panel. Most of us have generators that are connected manually to the house power. Manual means we wheel the generator our into the yard, hook up the power cord to the transfer panel, and flip the transfer switches.
Important! Be sure to follow local codes, and if one doesn’t not know their way around electricity, do not attempt this. Hire an electrician.
A manual generator transfer panel allows you to safely connect a generator to your circuit breaker panel. A transfer switch allow you to flip a few switches and manually disconnect your home breaker panel from the utility line power (the power coming into your house) and connect it to your generator. Hence the name, manual transfer switch.
If you don’t use a transfer panel to connect your generator to your home electric system, you can have power from the generator running back into the power line that serves your house. Back-feed is incredibly dangerous for many reasons. The biggest being you can electrocute a line worker who may be working to restore your electric power.
Here is how the Columbia River Utility explains it:
Standby generators make life easier during power outages, but if used improperly, they can be deadly. During an outage, electricity from your generator can backfeed the power lines, killing or seriously injuring our line crews who are working to repair the lines.
A transfer switch stops backfeeding, and also makes using your generator much more convenient, allowing appliances to be operated much like when the power is turned on.
A transfer switch also protects your generator when your local utility restores power, it keeps that local power from feeding back into your generator and damaging it.
Do not fashion an extension cord to plug the generator into one of your electrical outlets. A neighbor had a friend do this for him, only problem was the guy hooked up the generator side of the cord to the 220 volt output of the generator. They plugged in this very un-smart idea and burned out all the TVs, microwave, etc in the house.
There are a number of transfer panels that the a homeowner who is handy can install. ( check with your local building codes, a transfer panel installation may require a qualified professional)
We installed a manual switch similar to these. Here is a link to some DIY generator transfer panels one can purchase.
Transfer panel installation, Things to think about:
The first thing one must do is figure out how many watts and/or amps your home will require when running on generator power. When calculating this, figure out what essentials you need: furnace, well pump, lights, fridge, freezer. Don’t plan on running your washer and dryer with an emergency generator. Your power needs determine how large a generator you need, and what size transfer panel you’ll need. Also pay attention to how many 220 volt and 110 volt items you have, some transfer panels only have one 220 volt circuit breaker.
Installing the transfer switch involves working inside your circuit breaker panel. If you don’t feel comfortable doing this, don’t.
Be sure to turn off the main circuit breaker before opening up the panel. Pay close attention to the directions that come with the transfer panel, many come with a video. Watch it, you’ll learn.
I think the hardest part of all this is getting the bx cable from the transfer panel to connect with the breaker box. The bx cable ( the silver armored flex cable that contains all the transfer panel wires ) has to be connected to the breaker box by going thru a hole in the breaker box. Most boxes have a number of holes pre-punched, but they can still be hard to punch out. I use a cold chisel, but there are real electrician tools to open up these holes.
You need to balance the generator load. There are two meters on the transfer panel, and you want the load on each side of the transfer panel to be relatively equal. An example is you should put the furnace on one side of the panel, and the fridge on the other side.
Why? The fields in the generator – those coils of wire that generate the electricity – work best when the north and south coils have equal loads.
This whole process requires some thought and planning. Before you go out and buy a generator, calculate how much power – amps – you need. Here is a post about how to buy a generator for home use.
Again, I’m not the expert here, but wanted to share some of my experiences with generators and transfer panels. Please be careful, and hire a professional if the job requires it.
Here is a video we did talking about our generator transfer panel installation